When you are reading a book it is (obviously) finished when you get to the end. However, that is not always literally true. A good book may stay with you for a long time afterwards, particularly if there is an unresolved or intriguing ending. I have always been an avid reader, and ages ago I said to myself that once I had started a book I would always finish it – and I have stuck to that mantra. This has mostly been easy, but was less so when I had a period of reading some of the (Soviet) classics. I remember Anna Karenina taking a while, but I got there.
There is another ritual that I go through now when finishing a book. I subscribe to the Good Reads website (‘the world’s largest site for readers and book recommendations’), and since 2009 have disciplined myself to write a short review of each book I read. Unfortunately my reviewing is less disciplined than my reading. I am hugely in appears in adding my ‘reviews’. Right now I am 27 books behind in reviewing, almost a year’s worth of reading.
Anyway, enough waffle. This post is really about when the WRITING of a book is finished. My first is finished, at one level, but not at another. It is still selling in trickles, and I still look at the Amazon page about once a day – to see what ‘ranking’ it has. Today is has an Amazon ranking of 22,845th. OK not a best seller, but will produce royalties when the next update comes (it happens every 6 months, and one is due).
Although the manuscript for the second book went to publisher in March, it was far from finished. The rest of this blog details some of the post-manuscript tasks that I have had to encompass on the way to the publication date (in September). I thought it might be of interest to some to see the range of work involved for an author. If you are not interested then I suggest you stop now, and go and read a good book!
The same day the manuscript was submitted I received a reply from the Editor saying: ‘you really do seem to have produced a worthy successor.’ Then came The Sting. There were requests for changes: ‘Move the map to the beginning?’ Then: ‘Chapters 6 to 10 are all pretty long. I would say that 6000 words is a pretty long chapter.’
After bit of thought, I found a way to break the chapters that I am happy with. I had to rewrite a couple of the endings and beginnings of the changed chapters to make it work. I moved the map out of the chapter into the prelims, and renumbered and renamed the chapters. Originally I was going to call four of the new chapters what they covered, but they would all have been “Fastest this that or the other”. I decided to go with the names of the protagonists in each case instead. That left one chapter split into two covering the same topic, now called “Impressions” and “Further impressions”. Realise that chapter naming may not be one of my strongest points!
Then the Editor queried a couple of possible omissions, and reference errors, which I dealt with, and then started on the process of looking for and contacting possible people for cover quotes [link to Guardian piece on being suspicious of them]. This is a test of your networking capabilities really. Mine have improved since the first book, so I was hopeful of some results.
I approached a noted author. They replied ‘I’ve no idea when I’ll get a chance to look at it. I’m up against a desperate writing deadline myself & already have no time for reading. In addition, I have two large soon-to-be-published running books, written by friends of mine, sitting on my desk waiting for me to read them. So your book would have to go to the bottom of the pile, and, to be honest, the chances of my being able to read it before September look pretty slim. And I really can’t give a cover quote about a book I haven’t read. I’m happy to give it a try, though, if all that doesn’t put you off; but I can’t promise anything. Alternatively, would it make more sense for me to give you some kind of general quote about the BG that you could use?’ Not being one to take anything resembling ‘No’ for an answer, I agreed on the offered BG blurb, and said I would send him a copy of reviewer’s proof anyway ‘on the off chance’.
At this point my Editor queried the amount of quotes, and whether they were all agreed and/or within ‘fair dealing’. Whilst never quite understanding this term, I responded with evidence and justification for my usage of other’s words.
There was then an editing switch, where a different person to my familiar Editor at Sandstone Press (a freelancer) was brought in due to The Editor’s workload and our planned timescale. This took a little adjustment, by me, but worked out just fine. Once we had exchanged a couple of emails I could see that we understood our respective roles, and that we would get on fine – which we did.
Next we started on the photo section – with me sending the hi-res photos to the designer and the editor. The designer declared some as being too low a resolution, so I started hurriedly investigating alternatives. Meanwhile, the first big edits came back on the main manuscript, and I was recommended to accept them by main editor. I agreed changes, and was also able to add in bit about Nicky Spinks beating the ladies’ BGR record over Easter.
Sandstone were very good about allowing more time to get the photos and edited manuscript ‘publisher ready’. We all agreed there was time in hand, and that if necessary could go to print in July and still meet the September publishing date. To facilitate this timescale the new editor and I agreed to accept considering the edits in sections and work on each section in turn to save time.
It was now halfway through April and the Section 1 corrections arrived. The editor also sent some text for my consideration. It nicely expanded on a point I was making in what had turned out to a considerably revised chapter. The second section was received, and both 1 and 2 were returned with changes that day (I am now working only 3 days a week so have more time for turning this stuff around). Section three and four was received and the smallish number of changes were soon dealt with.
Meanwhile, I started working on the text/information for the hardback’s flycover. This involved editing my profile, and deciding on a call-out quote to use from the book – a sort of content tease. I had several competing ideas for this quote, so asked a couple of friends for their preferences from the list, which interestingly varied somewhat from mine.
The need to use some different photos meant the re-start of negotiations for copyright. For one source this proved awkward at first, but then became productive when some new photos were offered. One other source kept passing the buck from one organisation/person to the other but this was eventually resolved.
I had just got all the corrections back into one file when an article I had written was published in The Fellrunner. There were some nice responses about it, including out of the blue email from a Cambridge academic with some late leads and information. Some small, but significant, bits were slipped in right at the last moment. Interestingly the photo credit chasing also turned up some extra information, but it was not important really and rejected, and the definitive version of the manuscript dispatched.
The final illustrations and final selection of photos were sent to the designer and editor on the 14th May, and just that day even more information arrived from one correspondent but it was now definitely off-topic stuff (eg did I know of a real tough guy triathlon – Windermere swim, followed immediately by the Fred Whitton Challenge and then the Bob Graham Round – all hopefully with 48 hours).
The last thing was to tie down the cover quotes. I had compiled a list of good people to approach and carried on the chase. It was pleasing to get the first agreement in, from a former outdoor magazine editor, and this was swiftly followed by one from a current outdoor magazine editor. The next two were very pleasing to get agreement from, being two legends of fell running (see It’s a hill, get over it for hints as to who they might be – I lay my cards out pretty clearly there). The last piece of this particular jigsaw was Sandstone agreeing to print four uncorrected proof copies to send to these ‘quoters’ so they can read a copy of the book before penning their words of wisdom. I await these with deep interest.
This blog was started to give me a space me to write things around my first published book. This was It’s a hill, get over it, which was published by Sandstone Press in September 2013. It received some pretty good reviews, and I was deeply chuffed when it won the Bill Rollison Prize for Landscape and Tradition, and even more so to be nominated for the Boardman Tasker Prize for mountain literature. The book is still selling pretty well through Waterstones, Amazon and other sources, and signed copies can be obtained directly from me – in both hard and softback versions. But now it is time to move on, as I have been working on a second book for the last year or so.
So, today I submitted the manuscript to Sandstone. The book is entitled The Round, in Bob Graham’s footsteps. The Round is not only a history of the Bob Graham Round, but also an exploration of the what, why and how of this classic fell endurance challenge. After covering the genesis of the BGR in detail, it documents its development from a more-or-less idle challenge to its present status as a rite of passage for endurance runners. Interspersed with this detail of the round are extensive profiles of many of the event’s most significant individuals: innovators, record setters, recorders and supporters.
I now have to wait patiently for the editing, typesetting, printing, binding and distribution to be set up. It is scheduled for launch – in hardback and kindle formats – on 17 Sept 2015. I am hoping that the launch will take place in the Moot Hall, Keswick, the start and finish point of the round. At a later date I will post details for pre-ordering, a sample from the book, the launch details and more. Watch this space.
Last weekend I was in the Lakes to do some more work on my second book. Apart from the interviews, a talk, and some photo ops, I took in a fell race, and managed to get locked out of the Inn I was saying in! But, later in the end of the weekend I managed to bag another Wainwright in a Sunday morning weather window. This then is the tale of a very busy weekend.
On the Friday I drove up, taking far longer than I would have wished. I stopped off in Wythenshawe to record a fascinating interview with Mark McDermott. He is, of course, the person with the second highest peak count for an extended BGR inside 24 hours (76 peaks in 1988). A very interesting discussion it was, too, particularly hearing him talk animatedly about his Everest without oxygen ascent in 2001 (one of just 4 from the UK to have achieved that feat). Then it was on to my bed for the night, which was at the marvellous Brackenrigg Inn, in Watermillock.
On the Saturday morning I went to the Keswick Museum to have a look at the temporary exhibition there on Fell Running on Skidddaw and Latrigg, which had been put together with the help of members of Keswick AC. It was good to have a look around the Mountain Heritage Trust exhibition area too. Then it was over Whinlatter to watch the Blakes Heaven fell race, which is held from Lamplugh. A fine local race it is too. I watched them head out and then had a quick coffee in the church before coming out to watch John Heneghan take the victory. I tried handing out a few book leaflets, but have I reached market saturation with active fell runners? They all ‘said’ they had got it! I then set off to dawdle back, choosing to go via Buttermere and Honister as it was so nice.
On the way through Borrowdale I paid homage to Bob Graham by visiting his grave (in Stonethwaite churchyard), and then his memorial (beside the road to Ashness Bridge), before taking a quick squint at the Bowder Stone. By Honister I was getting really hungry and remembered the cafe at the slate mine to be good, but found that it was closed for refurbishment. So, on to Keswick with a view to some nosh at the excellent Saddleback Cafe, but that was closed for a staff break. As I was going that way I then thought that Rheged would be nice, which was a good idea, except that I got there 7 minutes after the food area closed (3pm). Coffee and cake had to suffice, but I was eating later. Then on to Sleagill to interview Martin Stone. He too had loads of interesting memories, all told in his engrossing ‘storytelling’ style. He has been involved in so much of recent BGR history, and added some great detail to many of the rounds and people I am focussing on.
From there it was a dash back to Ullswater to change, then on to the Keswick AC awards night. I sat on a table with Pete Richards and Duncan Overton and their partners. so not a quiet moment there, as we hoovered up an impressive buffet. Then Lesley introduced me, and I told a few stories from fell running history, and explained where I was coming from with the new book, before selling/signing a few copies of ‘It’s a hill, get over it’ (as you do). Chatting with club members afterwards it seems that the club has designs on the relay record time for the BGR (was I meant to keep that to myself Phil?!). The less said about being locked out of the Brackenrigg the better, but let’s just say it was a mixup.
Sunday dawned nicely and I had my fill of breakfast before heading up to Dockray and a pleasant stroll up Gowbarrow Fell. I imagined that it would give a good view down over Ullswater, which it did, but only over the two ends, as its own flank gets in the way from the summit. The light effect was pretty neat, as the photo attempts to show. Then the rain came in and I packed in the walking. Heading over the Kirkstone Pass there was zero visibility, and I zoomed down to Staveley to have a fab Wilfs lunch with a friend, before hitting the road for the long drive home. A fine and varied weekend.
There has not been much serious research into fell running. Whilst writing my latest book I have been digging deep down many avenues for potential sources. One of these has been of academic publications. The following [warning – it is quite a long ramble – a description that has been applied to the Bob Graham Round!] is a cherry pick of oddments from two unpublished MSc submissions and one journal paper. Some of it is good and interesting, and much of it rather shaky in my opinion. I leave you to decide. Full refs are at the end of the blog.
If you know of any other research on the subject DO let me know.
1 ….. physiological needs, characteristics and training methods
The subject of Matthews’ research was Fred Reeves and his daughter Helen. Fred was 36 at the time, and his daughter was aged 12. The method was a series of measurement tests on both of them. The tests included ECG for pulse rate, age, height, weight and sum of skin folds from eight sites. Chest and waist girths, leg length and chest depth were also measured, plus vital capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, forced expiratory volume, forced expiratory flow, and forced mid-exploratory flow. Fred’s tests were done on a treadmill, Helen’s on a bicycle ergometer. Some of the main data from the above is summarised here:
|Leg length (cms)||84||71|
|Body surface area (sq cms)||180||126|
|Body fat %||6.64||17|
|Resting heart rate (bpm)||42||56|
My notes are a little sketchy here (I had to view the dissertation in the Leeds Uni library, and at the time had no particular intention to do anything with them, as it didn’t fit with where my writing was going).
Matthews was going down the path of: ‘Heredity, it seems, imposes the limits on the physical fitness that an individual can attain’. Then refers to research on twins, identical and non, sedentary and trained, before quoting Astrand: ‘choose your parents’. He concludes that a father and daughter will have greater genetic variability than non-identical twins (but I noted that in this study there seemed to be no study of the impact of the mother’s genes).
The research went on to consider vo2max. Helen’s vo2max on the lab bike was 42.05, adjusted for treadmill to a ‘suggested’ reading of 50 (bike measures are known to be % lower than treadmill ones). He estimated that her adult potentially could be 70 if undergoing intensive training. Fred’s vo2max was 79. Matthews postulated that Fred could run a sub-4 min mile, as well as a sub 2-15 marathon. Furthermore, he was world class partly because of ‘an unusually high aerobic power/weight ratio’. He then quotes from research in ‘The Physique of the Olympic Athlete.’ By J. M. Tanner. (George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1964), comparing Reeves against the mean data for a large sample data from different athletic events:
|Height cms.||Wt kg.||Leg length cms.|
Next came the results of a survey of 10 leading fell runners (7 had been Fellrunner of Year)
|Mean weight||10st 2 men, 8st 12 women|
|Mean days training||7 days|
|Age started running||<15 4, <21 2, >21 4|
|Weekly mileage||<50 2, 50-70 none, 70 plus 8|
|More than once a day||8, once a day 2|
|Train on track||3|
|Taper down for races||2|
|Rest/train lightly after race||none|
|Have rest period during year||3|
|Mean hours of sleep||8|
|Had a coach||1|
Matthews commented that this was ‘a typically British result. Coaching has yet to arrive or be seen as important to the home athlete. It is interesting to note that in international track and field events, involving equipment, all top athletes are coached. In the light of scientific advances in training methods, physical measurements and diet, the need for a coach seems far more relevant.’ [This was in 1981]
Next in my notes come three fairly random comments from the research:
Gregor (in other research) found that ‘an incline of 6% requires 35% more energy than flat. Whereas a similar grade downhill only reduces the effort by 24%.’
Matthews on training: ‘If I was asked to list the single most important attribute a fell runner must possess, I would say simply it is the ability to run downhill. Amazingly, most fell runners use the downhill in the training session to recover. Some, very few I would guess, actually practice downhill running…… So, you should select a very steep scree-laden, boulder-ridden, as near vertical as possible slope and run down it. Go up a little higher – run down that and so on.’
And finally: When discussing rest one respondent replied ‘I rely solely on injuries for rest.’
Acknowledgements on the paper included: ‘I am particularly grateful to Fred and Helen Reeves for their lively participation and to those other fell runners who have given me the benefit of their experiences in replying to the questionnaire.’
2 ….. physiological and biochemical profile
They were tested in the lab, in simulated races and in real races (3 of each), including mid-race tests. Pre and post race-weights and heart-rates were taken. The races were Black Lane Ends (1979), Pendleton Hill (1980) and The Three Peaks (1980).
There are a huge amount of references in this paper. For instance ref no 103 is on ‘age and maturity of runners’, while refs 26 and 27 cover ‘vo2max for distance runners’.
Page 65 has information on anthropomorphic measurements of fell runners against marathoners, some of which was from another paper: ‘10,000m and marathon runners are characterised by a low body weight and fat load. Both test groups [of fell runners] were relatively heavy (Vets mean 68kg, Std mean 70.6kg), with skinfolds indicating a mean body fat load of 18.5% for vets and 21.1% for the Std group. This is high in comparison with marathon runners who typically carry less than 12% fat and often show a 7% load. Much of the fell runner’s training is in an environment where low air temperature, wind and rain are the norm. It may be that the protective advantage of a thicker sub-cutaneous adipose tissue is reflected in the skinfold measurements of both groups. Even the most successful national standard subject carried a 19% fat load. This factor may in part account for the relatively low mean vo2max figure for the Std group of 60.5ml/kg/min and that of the Vets of 61.4ml/kg/min. As the subjects are carrying in the order of 1/5 of their body weight as fat, these figures will essentially be lower than those for a similar group of athletes with a lower percentage fat load.’
Ref 105 is quoted as saying ‘10k runners with similar training and similar vo2max show considerable variation in finishing times, variables other than vo2max may contribute to running success.’ Simpson comments that findings of his study seem to agree with this so far as fell runners are concerned.
When it came to field tests he noted that: ‘Ranked mean finishing positions were therefore tested for correlation against ranked aerobic test results. Significant correlations were identified between finishing position, vo2max and absolute vo2 at OBLA (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation)’. Furthermore: ‘Where mid-race samples were taken they showed a significant increase on the pre race sample in all cases. However, for this group there were no significant changes in recorded lactate from mid to post race.’ But some courses were uphill/downhill and the midpoint may well have been at the top of the main steep ascent.
Summary of discussion: ‘both groups of fell runners exhibited higher body fat levels than was expected. This may affect their recorded maximum oxygen uptake. The subjects appear to set a race-pace which avoids lactacidosis; running below OBLA except at the high points of hill courses where lactate levels above 4mmol/L are recorded. Lower lactate levels were regained by the end of races. There was a significant correlation between OBLA as indicated by laboratory aerobic tests, and race finishing position. This suggests a positive advantage (in terms of race success) for runners with high vo2max and a high %vo2 at OBLA. However, there must be other factors to race success which are not explained by this work, as the most successful runner does not have the highest vo2max.’
3 ….. analysis of the Bob Graham Round
The third article is more recent, but for me proved to be less interesting. The stated aim of the research was threefold. The abstract stated that it: tested an elaboration to the well-known Naismith Rule for predicting progress in mountainous country; tested the conjecture that successful athletes in stamina events apply a constant work rate; and estimated the effect such additional factors as darkness or fatigue.
The data analysed related to a sample of 56 successful BGR attempts, 37 clockwise and 19 anti-clockwise. The schedules (ie timings) for these BGR completions were analysed in great detail. This produced some very complicated tables of ‘work rate’ per section of the route, as part of Aim 2 above. I will leave the reader to access the paper to study this detail. As far as Aim 1 was concerned the researchers proposed 5 variations to the Naismith Rule, covering terrain from flat, through gentle downhill to rough, steep downhill (defined as ‘an area of crags requiring rock climbing skills to move about’). Aim 3 was addressed by trying to use the data to give a realistic value to the effect on pace of darkness and fatigue, again by some fairly complicated cross-analysis of the timings on the sectors done in the dark or towards the end of rounds.
In the discussion section the researchers outlined the following conclusions:
- Their revised Naismith Rules are a useful indicator of the time taken to traverse a route in mountainous country at a constant work route.
- Runners who successfully complete the Bob Graham Round run faster in the earlier stages than in the latter stages. [They justify this ‘obvious’ conclusion by saying ‘it is apparent from many successful runners’ accounts that runners are encouraged by being ahead of schedule: a runner’s state of mind is as important as his/her degree of tiredness in determining work rate’]
- The effect of darkness is to reduce a runner’s pace by about 20%, but this average figure hides a considerable variability caused by such factors as terrain and degree of darkness.
1 – Matthews, N. J. (1981), An investigation into the physiological needs, characteristics and training methods of fell running with particular reference to a champion fell runner and his daughter, unpublished Leeds University MSc dissertation
2 – Simpson, D. (1984), A physiological and biochemical profile of the fell runner, unpublished University of Salford MSc thesis
3 – Hayes, M. and Norman, J. M. (1994), Strategy in Fell Running: an Analysis of the Bob Graham Round, Journal of Operational Research Society Vol 45, No 10, pp1123-1130
 It should be noted that have been variations to Naismith proposed at various times (eg Tranter’s variations).
It is a while since any reviews of ‘It’s a hill, get over it’ have appeared, but notice of one arrived in my inbox last week, under the title ‘Fell running is an increasingly popular sport, but have you ever wondered how it all began?’ It is on the blog of fell running guide Dave Taylor, and nicely summarises the book as an ‘excellent book ….[it] gives a detailed history of the sport; from the early shepherds’ meetings in the 1800′s through to the rise of the Brownlee brothers and the possibility of Kilian Jornet tackling the Bob Graham Round!‘
As Dave points out at the end of the review it is available from Amazon and all good bookshops including Outside, Hathersage. The hardback is still available as well as the paperback, which came out in September. Anyone wanting a signed copy of either is welcome to contact me.
Do you love running but want to take it a stage further? This is the message at the top of Dave’s website. If you do, why not take a look at his site [http://www.fellrunningguide.co.uk/]. He offers guided runs, nav training, and race reccies.
It was great to receive the Bill Rollinson Prize at the Cumbria Book Of the Year Awards earlier in the year, especially as I was able to be at the fabulous award event in Glenridding. I also got very great satisfaction about being nominated for the Boardman Tasker Award. Although obviously disappointed to not be on final shortlist of six, it was still something I would have struggled to believe if you had told me a few years ago it would happen.
After this the The Great Outdoors Awards were slightly bizarre. So, in these awards some (gear) are judged, and others voted for by the public (including the Outdoor Book of the Year category). After nominating my own book (which is allowed) I then encouraged a few friends to also nominate it as well. When it made the shortlist of ten it was opened to a public vote to decide the winner. After hesitating for a nanosecond or two to consider the ethics of my action, I then used every electronic and social media channel available to me to ask friends to vote for it. I received an invite to the awards ceremony and had the (probably unnecessary) thought that NOT saying I was going to attend might just possibly ‘exclude’ me from the possibility of winning. Anyway, many friends agreed to vote, and I booked the train to Kendal and took time off work to attend the awards ‘do’. I was able to combine this with a visit to Kendal library to do some more ‘Book II’ research.
The awards ceremony was held in Burgundy’s Wine Bar/Brewhouse which was intimate and had impressive brews. I fell into conversation with a couple of other writers, Chris Townsend (fellow Sandstone Press author) and Alex Roddie (who is self-published), and then the presentations started. Apparently over 10,000 votes were cast. For the book of the year the 10 nominations were read out and then the top three were revealed in reverse order. Alex Roddie pulled in third, and I was announced as second. Alan Hinkes took the award for his book ‘8000 metres’. No shame in being second to such a prominent figure, and now I can’t help wondering how much e-hustling he did. Maybe he just has more friends than me!
4wards: while all this has been going on ‘It’s a hill, get over it’ has been selling pretty well. As I write this the paperback is 8,725th ranked book on the Amazon website (and the hardback still 20,689th), and it is available in good bookshops in the run up to Christmas (Waterstones in Kendal illustrated to left). But equally importantly I am moving 4wards. I have written a good deal of the manuscript for the project still known as Book II. I have now agreed and signed a contract with Sandstone Press for publication next Autumn. The book title has been firmed up and a full announcement will be made once the publisher’s information is compiled and available.